Posted By: gulfiend!
Re: Pierce Pennant Globe Chimney Cap ???? - Tue Aug 25 2009 08:08 PM
...whew, where's the PBS 'History Detectives' when you need'em?...
...more, from 'the Googles':
NPS Form 10-900-aUnited States Department of the InteriorNational Park ServiceNational Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form - PIERCE PENNANT MOTOR HOTEL
Letter of Beverly T. Nelson, Department of State, Foreign Buildings Office, dated September 6, 1943 to Mr. Hammond. (Stephens College file on the Pennant Motor Hotel); Columbia Daily Tribune, July 6, 1929, p. 1: 1-8.enclosed floor plan of the Pennant Motor Hotel, copied from the original in the Stephens College file.list of owners of the Pennant property during this period, the dates on which they acquired title and the page references in the Boone County deed records is as follows: Pierce Petroleum Corporation, January 16, 1929, Deed Record Book 189, p. 255; Sinclair Refining Company, August 1, 1930, Deed Record Book 194, p. 412; Dan A. Wilkerson and Sentiny Richards Barnett, May 27, 1942, Deed Record Book 229, p. 102; R. E. Carney, May 13, 1943, Deed Record Book 231, p. 74; Stephens College, February 28, 1944, Deed Record Book 233, p. 103; Julius Epstein and Elmer J. Babin, October 1, 1952, Deed Record Book 268, p. 98. This sale was voided because of default on the Epstein note and the property reverted to Stephens College. Deed Record Book 275, p. 154; Benjamin J. Katz, November 26, 1956, Deed Record Book 287, p. 273; Nel M. Blaser, November 1, 1957, Deed Record Book 292, p. 303; Candle Light Lodge, Inc., August 15, 1959, Deel Record Book 298, p. 637.
8. SignificancePeriodprehistoric1400-14991500-15991600-16991700-17991800-1899__ XI 900-Areas of Significance Check and justify belowarcheology-prehistoric community planningarcheology-historic conservationagriculture economicsX architecture educationart engineering, commerce exploration/settlementcommunications industryinventionlandscape architecturelawliteraturemilitarymusicphilosophypolitics/governmentreligionsciencesculpturesocial/humanitariantheater_ X_ transportation other (specify)Specific dates 3uilt 1929Builder/Architect Contractor: Y/I11 W. JohnsonStatement of Significance (in one paragraph)Architect: Beverly T. NelsonThe Pierce Pennant Motor Hotel complex is a significant surviving example of a early hotel built in specific response to the automobile age, and is a good example of the Colonial Revival architectural style. Another area of signifi cance is its association with the training of female aviators during World War II.The Pierce Pennant conplex is an attractive group of buildings in the Williamsburg restoration style, designed by Beverly T. Nelson of St. Louis. The buildings, with tile walls and concrete floors, are of fireproof construction and pleasing interior decor.The Pierce Petroleum Company which built the Pennant structures was one of the oldest oil companies in the United States. It was during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century a major distributor of Standard Oil products. But the Rockefeller interests, with a majority of votes onthe board of directors and representatives in the St. Louis office of the Pierce company, were never able to dominate their subsidiary.^ Later thePierce company bought Standard's stock and severed its connection with the parent organization. It became an integrated company, drilling for oil, and refining, transporting and retailing its products. It^ranked as one of the strongest competitors of Standards in the Middle West.The Pennant complex, consisting of the terminal building, the hotel-garage and the service station, was intended by the Pierce company to be one of the first of a string of such facilities to be located every 125 miles between New York and San Francisco. 5 When most motels were merely groups of cabins on busy highways outside of towns and cities, the Pierce company aimed to provide in its facilities the ultimate in comfort and service.During World War II Stephens College conducted a training program for women aviators and ground personnel, using the Pennant buildings and the runways and the hangar of the nearby Columbia municipal airport.' It has been estimatedthat as of 1955, approximately ten percent of the nation's women aviators had received their training at Stephens College.Presently the Pennant complex is operated by Candle Light Lodge, Inc. as one of Columbia's most popular and successful retirement centers.
The Pierce Petroleum Company was the successor to the Waters-Pierce Oil Company. The key figure in the Waters-Pierce organization was Henry Clay Pierce, a businessman as colorful and ruthless as his associate and frequent competitor John D. Rockefeller. Born in New York state, he left school at sixteen and moved to St. Louis, where he clerked in a bank for a while. He got into the booming oil industry shortly after the Civil War, as a distributor of oil products handled by his father-in-law John R. Finley, who had established the first refinery west of the Mississippi. In 1871, only twenty-two years old, he bought out his father-in-law and teamed up with W. H. Waters, a St. Louis businessman, to found Waters-Pierce. (Allan Nevins, Study in Power: John D. Rockefeller, Industrialist and Philanthropist [New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 19533, Vol. II, pp. 41-42). Pierce developed the local Missouri market, then extended his operations into Texas and New Mexico. Eventually he built three small refineries in Mexico. At this period Waters-Pierce was one of the largest independent distributors of Standard Oil products in the country. (Nevins, Study in Power, pp. 42, 45.) In the reorganization of Waters-Pierce in 1878, Standard acquired 40 percent of the Waters-Pierce stock and Chess, Carley and Company, another wholesale distributor allied with Standard, 20 percent. (Nevins, Study in Power, p. 42.) Henry Clay Pierce, with control of 40 percent of the stock, was in a minority position. But Standard was never able to control or dictate to Pierce. He was president of his company, with offices in St. Louis. Standard operated out of Cleveland and New York. Pierce was the chief executive or operations officer; the representative of Standard who appeared at company meetings were only board members. (Nevins, Study in Power, p. 42). The fact that Waters-Pierce generated large profits for Standard made the oil giant tolerate its uncooperative distributor. (Nevins, Study in Power, p. 43.) In order to integrate the dozens of operating companies with the parent Standard Oil of Ohio, the stock of the various units was turned over to nine trustees, empowered to exercise general supervision and management. Investors holding stock in the operating companies received in exchange certificates of the new Standard Oil Trust, on which dividends were paid. (John A. Garaty, The American Nation: A History of the United States [New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1966] p. 514.) During the 1880s and 1890s, Standard implemented a policy of dispensing with independent distributors and of reorganizing the selling of its products through large territorial divisions controlled from Cleveland and New York. (Nevins, Study in Power, p. 45). High level representatives were placed in the Waters-Pierce offices in St. Louis. Standard was thus able to assure itself a constant flow of information regarding its distributor's operations; but this arrangement did not establish rigid control of Henry Clay Pierce. (Nevins, Study in Power, p. 43.) In 1892, the Supreme Court of Ohio ruled that Standard's operations were in restraint of trade and ordered the trust dissolved into twenty constituent units. Standard Oil of New Jersey, with greatly increased capitalization, emerged as the dominant company. (Nevins, Study in Power, pp. 232-233.) It bought from the Standard trustees large blocks of stock in the operating groups, including Waters-Pierce. (Nevins, Study in Power, Vol. II, pp. 232-233.) A second suit was instituted on March 29, 1905 in the Supreme Court of Missouri to deprive Standard Oil, Waters-Pierce and the Republic Oil Company of their franchises to do business in Missouri. Herbert S. Hadley, attorney general of Missouri, secured testimony from a Standard official that Waters-Pierce was the south western branch of Rockefeller's organization. (St. Louis Republic, Jan. 6, 1906, p. 2: 3-4.) The Missouri Supreme Court on December 23, 1908 found Standard Oil, Republic and Waters-Pierce guilty of conspiracy to control the price of oil, in violation of Missouri's anti-trust laws. The three companies were fined, and Standard and Republic were ousted from the state. The decision was confirmed in 1911 by the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled that stock in Standard's subsidiary companies must be returned to its original owners. Waters-Pierce, by reorganizing and breaking with Standard, was permitted to keep its charter to operate in Missouri. (St. Louis Republic, Dec. 24, 1908, p. 1: 6-7; ibid., Mar. 10, 1909, p. 2: 2; ibid., May 16, 1911, p. 1: 6-7). On February 15, 1912, a group of Standard officials appeared at a meeting of Waters-Pierce shareholders called for the election of officers. Despite the fact that they held proxies for 68.75 percent of Waters-Pierce stock, they were not permitted to vote. Henry Clay Pierce contended that the establishment of Standard's domination of his company would violate the Supreme Court's decision. The minority stockholders then proceeded to elect Henry Clay Pierce as chairman of the board and his son Clay A. Pierce as company president. (St. Louis Republic, Feb. 16, 1912, p. 1:3.) Unable, after forty years of trying, to dominate its rebellious subsidiary, Standard sold its 68.75 percent stock interest to Waters-Pierce. Following the complete dissociation of Standard and Waters- Pierce, the ouster of Standard from Missouri was revoked. With its new lease on life, Standard announced plans to expand its operations in Missouri and to compete with Waters-Pierce in all sections of the state. (St. Louis Republic, Oct. 28, 1912, p. 5:1; ibid., May 18, 1913, p. 11:7.) On June 21, 1913, Waters-Pierce reorganized under the laws of Virginia as the Pierce Oil Corporation. It established headquarters in Richmond, with a regional office in St. Louis. The company was capitalized at $21,000,000, one half of which was common stock, the other half preferred stock. New York, English and German bankers were reported to be heavy investors in the enterprise. It was the aim of the organization to compete with Standard in all departments of the oil business. (St. Louis Republic, June 23, 1913, p. 5:5; ibid., July 15, 1913, p. 4:5.) In the summer of 1913, with apparently unlimited funds, the Pierce Oil Corporation began operations in the Oklahoma oil fields in open competition with the Rockefeller interests. It was reported that by August 2 the company had spent $9,000,000 in the purchase of oil properties and an additional $2,000,000 in the construction and equipping of refineries in that area. (St. Louis Republic, Aug. 3, 1913, Part I, p. 9:2-5.) Standard mounted a strong counteroffensive against the Pierce Oil Company in the letter's home territory in the fall of 1913. It established distributing plants in Kirkwood, De Soto, Dexter, Troy, Hannibal, Ste. Genevieve and Springfield. A. P. Robinson, formerly with Waters-Pierce before its divorce from Standard, directed Standard's operations in Missouri. One of his first moves was to cut the price of gasoline from 17-1/2 cents to 14-1/2 cents and the cost of kerosene from 9 cents to 7 cents. But he termed "ridiculous" the idea that he was initiating a price war. (St. Louis Republic, Nov. 14, 1913, p. 1:4.)P Allan Nevins, Study in Power: John D. Rockefeller, Industrialist andPhilanthropist (New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1953), Vol. II, p. 45. 3Ibid_., pp. 42-43.4St. Louis Republic, Oct. 28, 1912, p. 5:1; ibid., Aug. 3, 1913, Part I, page 9:2-5.^Columbia Daily Tribune, July 2, 1929, p. 1:3."Ibid., July 6, 1929, Section B, p. 1:1-5. The Pennant complex was one of the initial units in the grandoise plan of the Pierce company, which called for the establishment of a chain of such facilities across the United States from New York to San Francisco. E. D. Levy, the president of the Pierce company in 1929, grasped the importance of the new federal highway program and also the potential of air transportation. In choosing a site for the Pierce Pennant Motor Hotel he selected ground along Old Highway 40 west of Columbia. The site decided on was just across the highway from the Columbia municipal airport. Levy anticipated that the Pierce Pennant would profit from the anticipated increase in highway and air travel. The Pierce Pennant Motor Hotel was one of its kind in the United States. It represented a giant step forward in planning for the needs of the traveling public. When most motels were groups of cabins on busy highways outside towns and cities, the Pierce company aiied to provide in its facilities the ultimate in comfort and service. Its hotel was attractive architecturally, was set in spacious, landscaped grounds and was of fireproof construction. It was designed as a show place as well as a source of potential profit. An important feature of the motor hotel was the underground garage, in which guests could leave their cars with the assurance that the vehicles and their contents would be safe. The restaurant in the terminal building, serving excellent food at reasonable prices, made it unnecessary for guests to go into town for their meals. In the terminal building also was an emergency hospital with a trained nurse on hand. Ambulance service to local hospitals and doctors' office was available. An information bureau was provided; and Western Union as well as long distance and local telephone lines were installed. Repair and maintenance work on cars was provided on a twenty- four hour basis in the Pierce Pennant's service station. (Columbia Daily Tribune, July 6, 1929, Section B, p. 1:1-3.) The onset of the Great Depression shortly after the opening of the Pierce Pennant deprived the hotel of a fair opportunity to demonstrate that it was what the traveling public wanted in a home away from home.7Ibid., April 30, 1942, p. 5:1; ibid., September 20, 1943, p. 14:1-3. The involvement of the United States in World War II, beginning December 7, 1941, set the stage for an innovative employment of the Pennant property. A training program to prepare young women for positions in the aviation industry was setup by Stephens College in the fall of 1942, under the sponsorship of eleven of the nation's leading airlines. A double purpose motivated this development: first to make a contribution to the national defense effort; second, to take advantage of the job opportunities opening up for women in the growing aviation field. Students in general aviation enrolled for courses in the history of aviation, aerodynamics, plane construction, navigation, meterorology and radio. There were also course sequences in commercial air transportation and basic airline traffic procedures. To provide practical experience in airline operations, a "dummy" corporation was set up on campus. Students went through all the ordinary activities of a regular airline, making sales, checking cargo, charting weather, planning flights, and sending and receiving radio messages. Field trips to major airports, factories and other installations provided first hand observations. In 1943 flight training was inaugurated. (Columbia Daily Tribune, April 30, 1942, p. 5:1; ibid., August 23, 1943, p. 1:1.) The college aviation program was organized and directed by Kenneth E. Newland, first lieutenant in the Missouri Air Squadron and a member of the Stephens College music conservatory. During the first year the aviation ground courses were conducted in the basement of Wood Hall on the campus. Aviation students lived at Gordon Manor where the aviation program laboratories were located. Stephens College in August 1943 rented the Pennant property from R. E. Carney of Rolla at a monthly cost of $750, with the option of purchasing the four buildings for $60,000. In September 1943 the entire aviation proram was moved from campus to the new location. The hotel became a dormitory for aviation students, the restaurant a dining hall. The hotel's service station was converted into a classroom for motor vehicles and the garage was used to house the planes, motors, navigation instruments and other equipment donated by the army air corps for use in ground school instruction. (Columbia Daily Tribune, August 23, 1943, p. 1:1.) In December 1943 the Columbia City Council approved a proposal to construct a 4,800 square foot hangar at the airport, with an apron adjacent to the hangar and extending to the runway. This was rented to the college at a yearly payment of 10 percent of the construction cost. (Columbia Daily Tribune, December 3, 1943, p. 1:1; ibid., December 28, 1943, p. 1:4.) On March 1, 1944, Stephens College exercised its option to purchase the Pennant complex. The Stephens program was similar to the one at Purdue University, but on a larger scale—the largest in fact ever sponsored by the CM. As of May 1945, the aviation program enrolled 800 students. It used twenty-seven planes and employed thirteen instructors. (Columbia Daily Tribune, May 25, 1945, p. 8B:5-7.) Flight instruction, on a reduced scale, remained in the curriculum until 1961. As of 1955, approximately 10 percent of the nation's women aviators had received their training at Stephens. Kenneth Newland, who had directed the aviation program, later went to Washington where as curator of the National Aviation and Space Museum he helped to plan that new part of the Smithsonian Institute. With the phasing out of its aviation activities, Stephens College had no further use of the Pennant property. On September 14, 1956, the college accepted the bid of Benjamin J. Katz of $118,000 for the Pennant complex.Q°Interview of John Crighton with Harry Burge, former flight instructor in the Stephens aviation program, at Stephens College, May 27, 1980.
MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES A. Books Crighton, John C. Stephens: A Story of Educational Innovation. Columbia, Mo.: The American Press, 1970.Garraty, John A. The American Nation; A History of the United States. New York!Harper and Row Publishers, 1966.Nevins, Allan. Study in Power: John D. Rockefeller, Industrialist and Philanthropist. Vol. IlTNew York:Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953.Rose, Grace Norton. Williamsburg, Today and Yesterday. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1940.B. NewspapersColumbia Daily Tribune, 1929; 19^1-1945. St. Louis Republic, 1906-1922.C. Official RecordsBoone County Deed Records, 1929-1959- Boone County City Building. Abstract No. 2908C. Boone County Abstract Company.D. InterviewsHarry Burge, former flight instructor in the Stephens aviation program, May 27, 1980.Edwin Gross, Secretary Treasurer, Candle Light Lodge, November 28, 1980. Randy Gross, Administrator, Candle Light Lodge, May 21, 1980.Dr. Osmund Overby, Professor of the history of architecture, University of Missouri, c. December 1, 1980 (by telephone).B. D. Simon, Columbia contractor, and president of Candle Light Lodge, November 20, 1980 (by telephone).